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轻钢龙骨住宅是如何安装的?

2015-12-16

核心提示:轻钢龙骨住宅与传统住宅相比房屋重量轻,湿地作业少、工期短,可以建成集成房屋、轻钢房屋,其所用的建材大部分可回收利用降解、造价低、是绿色环保的节能住宅。轻钢龙骨住宅体系在科技上的突破和应用,将是长期的,将会改变传统意义上的建筑模式。今天我们就来介绍一下轻钢龙骨住宅是如何安装的?1、基础施工基础一般采用钢筋混凝土条型基础。由于钢结构住宅的重量只有钢筋混凝土结构住宅的1/4-1/6,基础处理比较简单。钢结构与混凝土基础的连接是采用Φ10-Φ12地角螺栓沿承重墙预埋,间距一般为1.2-1.5米。考虑到房屋抗震抗风的要求,在房屋的转角处还要预埋镀锌扁铁与钢结构连接。其抵抗水平力的作用非常象砖混结构中的构造柱。2、钢结构构件的工厂预制根据设计图,工程师须先提出钢龙骨加工料单。所有的龙骨均由U型和C型断面组成,只是断面与长度尺寸的不同。龙骨厂在龙骨制做完成之后,房屋的主体结构一般有以下三种形式装配。第一种情况:所有龙骨及构件均运到施工现场安装。这种情况比较适合于较复杂的房型及规模不大的工程。其特点是方便灵活,许多设计及施工中的问题均可在施工现场解决。第二种情况:主要大型构件如屋架、大梁、部分墙体先由组装厂预制好再运到施工现场吊装。第三种情况:房屋的墙体(含门窗)、楼板、屋面等均在组装厂安装完毕,甚至水电系统也进行初步的安装到位。然后把这种接近成品的房屋构件运到施工现场组装。第一、第二种情况房屋主体结构的安装一般需要20-30天,而第三种情况只需7-10天。第三种情况已使房屋的建造达到了较高的工业化水准,具备了规模化生产的条件。在美国这种做法多用于规模较大的经济型住宅。目前我国采用的主要是第一、第二种情况。3、钢龙骨构件的连接龙骨与龙骨、龙骨与工程板的连接均采用高强自攻螺钉连接。前面已提到了龙骨与混凝土基础的连接方法。在局部采用轻钢龙骨结构的其他住宅结构体系中,龙骨与混凝土、龙骨与大型钢构件的连接采用强力射钉连接。目前市场上可采购到的射钉枪,可以射穿6毫米厚的钢板。实际上轻钢龙骨的这种连接方式是非常简便的。每一个连接节点在构造上都有明确的规定,使现场工程检验也非常方便。4、现场组装的主要步骤轻钢龙骨构件运到施工现场后,现场工程师要先根据设计图在基础上放线,之后主要施工步骤如下:墙底U型龙骨与地角螺栓连接——>龙骨墙安装(含门窗过梁)——>楼面龙骨安装——>垂直度、水平度校核——>封楼面工程板——>做二层龙骨墙体(含门窗过梁)——>三层楼面或天花龙骨安装——>屋架安装——>整体垂直度、水平度校核——>封外墙和屋面工程板。

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